Swimming Pools

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Our acknowledged Specialists and combined accolades bring a unique expertise to the market with Swimming Pools monitoring, maintenance & treatment

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Our certified and competent Engineers have acquired extensive knowledge and skills through study and practice over years of experience

Types of Swimming Pools

The HSE categorise Pools into various types that require different control procedures, such as:

Swimming Pools that include;

  • communal pools
  • hydrotherapy pools
  • leisure pools
  • water parks
  • hotel pools

Spa Pools, also known as;

  • spa baths
  • whirlpool baths
  • hot tubs

Spa Pools contain;

  • a self-contained body of warm agitated water
  • been designed for sitting or lying in and not for swimming or total body immersion
  • air-jet circulation

Waterman can provide complete monitoring & maintenance programmes and innovative solutions to maintain all types of Pools. 

Balance Tanks

Swimming Pools Balance Tanks are an important but often forgotten feature in the Pool Filtration Systems that play a significant role in maintaining a constant water level in pools. It is situated in between the filtration system and the pool tank itself, providing an intermediate to hold the water displaced by bathers entering the pool before releasing the water back into the tank as bathers leave to give a constant water level.

Due to its set-up, the balance tank accumulates a large amount of debris and contaminants. This provides a prime breeding ground for a variety of bacteria. If not cleaned regularly can pose a serious threat to pool hygiene.

Waterman are able to provide the full monitoring & maintenance services of balance tanks as recommended by the guidance (PWTAG Code of Practice, HSG179, HSG282).
Contact us now to ensure the hygiene and satisfaction of your custome

Microbiological Testing

Sampling should be carried out regularly to monitor the presence of microorganisms. Testing should also be undertaken in the following circumstances:

  • Before a pool is used for the first time
  • Before it is put back into use, after having been shut down for repairs
  • If there are difficulties with the treatment system
  • If contamination has been noted
  • As part of any investigation into possible adverse effects on bathers’ health.

More frequent sampling will be necessary if there is a problem or for particularly heavily loaded pools. Hydrotherapy pools, even those not in a healthcare setting, should be tested weekly.

Microbiological testing should be performed only by competent and accredited personnel at a UKAS laboratory.

Waterman can provide a large selection of water tests, such as Microbiological, Metal, Corrosion and Chemical. We use Mercian Science who are regarded as one of the best in their industry and are UKAS accredited.

Routine Monthly Water Analysis

Waterman can carry out all types of Water Analysis, such as:

  • Total Viable Count (TVC) – Is an overall indicator of the bacteriological water quality. They don’t indicate that the water is harmful, high numbers can indicate that the filtration/disinfection system should be investigated
  • Total coliforms – Bacteria, universally present in the faeces of mammals (e.g. Enterobacter, Escherichia)
  • E coli – a bacterium in human or animal faeces – one of the coliform organisms routinely monitored for signs of faecal pollution
  • Pseudomonas – widespread in nature occurring commonly in water and soil and on damp or moist surfaces. When these organisms are present they may proliferate utilising nutrients either from the water or from plumbing materials used in the distribution system
  • > Cryptosporidium – can cause a respiratory & gastrointestinal illness (cryptosporidiosis) that primarily involves watery diarrhoea with or without a persistent cough in both immunocompetent & immunodeficient humans

What to do with Positive Samples

Helping You Take Control of Your Water Systems.

Waterman will monitor all water samples through our LIMS (Laboratory Management System) which allows us to constantly monitor the samples on the central data base. We will then report any positives or potential issues to our clients advising of what should & shouldn’t be done to comply with guidance and help our clients ensure the hygiene and satisfaction of their customers.

Acting On Failures / Pool Closure

If a result is unsatisfactory, a preliminary investigation should be undertaken and the test should be repeated as soon as practicably possible.

If the second result is also unsatisfactory, the pool’s management and operation should be investigated and the test repeated.

If the third result is still unsatisfactory, immediate remedial action is required, which may mean closing the pool.

The pool should be closed if there is chemical or physical evidence of unsatisfactory disinfection.

The pool should be closed if microbiological testing discloses gross contamination, which means one of two things:

  • E coli over 10 per 100 ml PLUS either colony count over 10 cfu per ml or P aeruginosa over 10 per 100 ml (or, of course, both).
  • P aeruginosa over 50 per 100 ml PLUS colony count over 100 per ml.

Sample Results

  • The total viable count (colony count) should not be more than 10 colony forming units (cfu) per mill litre of pool water at 37°C for 24h.
  • A colony count in excess of 100 cfu/ml is unsatisfactory.
  • A consistently raised colony count of 10 to100 cfu/ml is unsatisfactory and should be investigated.
  • Total coliforms should be absent in 100ml. Less than 10 per 100ml is acceptable provided it does not happen in consecutive samples, there are no Escheria coli, the colony count is less than 10 cfu/ml and the residual disinfectant concentration and pH values are within the recommended ranges.
  • E.coli should be absent in a 100ml sample.
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa should be absent in a 100ml sample. If the count is over 10 cfu/100 ml, the test should be repeated.
  • Where repeated samples contain P aeruginosa, the filtration and disinfection procedures should be examined to determine whether there are areas within the pool circulation where the organism is able to multiply. When counts exceed 50 cfu/100 ml pool closure is advised.


Within a pool facility there are many potential uses of water where users and those in the vicinity may be exposed to hazards with the potential to cause injury and waterborne illness.

In general, the importance of a balance between public health demands and consumer acceptability are similar for both drinking and swimming waters. Disinfection cannot be compromised but can be aimed towards minimising both disinfectant levels and the formation of unwanted substances, including disinfection by-products.
Along with filtration and chemical dosing, balance tank cleaning is key to keeping the pool water well balanced and safe.

Balance tank cleaning, is recommended by PWTAG (Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group). Balance tanks should be inspected at least once a year and cleaned as necessary. Debris should be removed and inner surfaces brushed and flushed down with 10mg/l chlorinated water, which can be returned to the circulation system via the filters.

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